Editor: Springer London
Rodríguez, Evelio; Randolph Chitwood, W.
Division of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, 600 Moye Boulevard, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
The specialty of cardiac surgery has evolved substantially over the last 50 years, and surgical procedures that seemed impossible then are now commonly encountered in hospitals throughout the world. The latest development in this ever-evolving field is minimally invasive and robot-assisted procedures. In this article we will review the surgical outcomes reported for different series of procedures in cardiac surgery.Rodríguez, Evelio; Randolph Chitwood, W.