Suematsu, Y.; Mora, B.N.; Mihaljevic, T.; del Nido, P.J.
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
BACKGROUND: This study reports on our initial experience with robotically assisted patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure and vascular ring division in children.
METHODS: From April 2002 to May 2004, 15 patients underwent PDA closure (n = 9) and vascular ring repair (n = 6) by a totally endoscopic approach, utilizing the Da Vinci robotic system. The mean age of the patients was 8.3 +/- 4.7 years (range, 3 to 18) and the mean weight, 35.5 +/- 19.0 kg (range, 14.1 to 77.0 kg). Three thoracoscopic trocars were used to accommodate the endoscopic camera and two surgical instruments with an additional small incision for lung retraction. After dissection by the surgeon seated at the master console, PDA ligation with clips or division of the atretic arch and ductal ligament was performed.
RESULTS: Total operative times were 170 +/- 46 minutes (PDA) and 167 +/- 48 minutes (vascular ring). One patient with vascular ring was converted to thoracotomy because of dense adhesions due to previous surgery. Precise and easy surgical maneuver was possible with the articulated surgical instruments and three-dimensional visualization in 14 patients. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography confirmed no persistent shunt in all PDA patients. No laryngeal nerve injury and hemorrhage were noted. All patients were extubated in the operating room. Median length of postoperative hospital stay was 1.5 days.
CONCLUSIONS: Robotically assisted PDA closure and vascular ring division is a feasible and safe procedure. Future technologic improvement, including smaller instrument size and incorporation of tactile feedback, may permit application of this technique to even younger infants and intracardiac repairs.Suematsu, Y. … [et al.]